High Quality Amico high quality Brass stop valve to Holland Manufacturer
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Videos 1-4: The compiled segments of videos 1-4 are also in a publicly shared folder with this link & related files: https://drive.google.com/folderview?id=0B0PgUkh7KtVjfm5rVHBYb2FqMnhiOVJxUDNJNHI0SXgyZHZGN1VSZ2prVEhfWlJSa1B6N2M&usp=sharing
1. Enclosed parking garage fire training (UK) video segments: 0:00-0:10, 0:29-1:29, 02:11-02:16, 2:38-2:56, 03:30-4:25, full video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQZ_fv_NhAk
NOTE: a. how fast the fire spreads, b. how the fire jumps between the first two cars & even the third that is farther away simply because the air becomes hot enough to ignite the paint & plastics on the car & fabric materials inside, c. a conduit is ignited that goes through the ceiling & could spread to living quarters above, d. there are liquids, including fuel leaking from the cars that can spread the fire, blocking access for people & vehicles as it makes its way to a drain, e. there is thick, dark smoke from top to bottom which is super-heated, eliminating clean air pockets for breathing, cooking & igniting everything in its path, f. the fire was subsequently extinguished quickly because the garage was not deep & could be easily reached with a hose while the firemen remained outside in open air.
2. Fire flow path video segments: 0:00-0:38, 35:00-36:03, full video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=82OJqcftNVg
NOTE: a. the widow of Mark Falkenhan, 25-year firefighting experience (17-yr career & 8-yr volunteer) & emerg medical service instructor in U.S. Secret Service introduces this video, Mark died in 6-unit apartment building fire exhibiting air-flow risks depicted in this training documentary; b. entrance of air from lower spot than exit of air creates wind speeds up to 10 mph that accelerates fire, a possible factor in enclosed parking garages that is not present in integrated garages; c. majority of thick, high temperature smoke obscures entrance where firefighters deliver water; d. water at the entrance does not reach the source of the fire in the rear kitchen, e. access to reach the fire in the rear from the front of the property is limited because there is little to no space on the side of the property (a factor in 415 California project).
3. Apartments with underground enclosed parking structure fire video segments: 00:00-01:23, 01:27-01:31, full video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vqsh6A10LEo
NOTE: a. the abundance of hot, dark smoke coming from the entrance to the parking garage, b. the fire took 1 hr 40 mins to extinguish from first report, c. about 100 personnel from several fire departments responded, d. firemen had difficulty locating the fire, e. firemen risked entering the structure with breathing & flame/heat retardant equipment.
4. Attached garage fire video segments 02:15-2:39, 2:47-03:05, full video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BigbAgY3nSUt NOTE: a. fire was extinguished relatively quickly; b. fire was effectively fought from fire trucks with clear access; c. liquids, including fuel drained away from the building & were easily spotted & extinguished with foam, d. firemen were able to maintain greater distance & safety from fire, e. smoke was thinner, even with raging fire because garage was not deep & had access to open air.
5. Apartment garage fire video – full video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nBhfYYCVuAg NOTE: a. damage to structure above garage was limited because fire equipment had clear, open air access to source of fire, b. fire was extinguished quickly & effectively.
Fighting parking garage fires are more risky because “The effects can be magnified inside a parking structure, primarily because the smoke is trapped, which limits visibility, & you might not be able to safely attack from the four corner angles of the car due to its location & adjacent cars, columns or walls.”
“There are many variables involved in fighting a car fire in a parking garage, including structure type, access, grade or elevation changes, confined spaces or areas trapping heat & smoke, exposures & fire department response.”
Attached to or underneath another larger building. “When car fires occur in these garage spaces, smoke & byproducts of combustion can travel through voids, elevator shafts, stairwells & utility areas into the occupied portions of the attached structure, making the incident a more serious emergency.”
“flammables can run down deeper into garage, blocking people & property, but in an integrated garage, run-off would travel outside to the nearest storm sewer drain.
A stairwell standpipe riser is often the closest water source, yet these are dry standpipe systems, taking several mins for the fire engine to supply water to the system, expel the air from the piping prior to hooking up hoses. Unlike integrated garages, the fire truck CANNOT drive up to it.
A gate valve, also known as a sluice valve, is a valve that opens by lifting a round or rectangular gate/wedge out of the path of the fluid. The distinct feature of a gate valve is the sealing surfaces between the gate and seats are planar, so gate valves are often used when a straight-line flow of fluid and minimum restriction is desired. The gate faces can form a wedge shape or they can be parallel. Gate valves are primarily used to permit or prevent the flow of liquids, but typical gate valves shouldn’t be used for regulating flow, unless they are specifically designed for that purpose. Because of their ability to cut through liquids, gate valves are often used in the petroleum industry. For extremely thick fluids, a specialty valve often known as a knife valve is used to cut through the liquid. On opening the gate valve, the flow path is enlarged in a highly nonlinear manner with respect to percent of opening. This means that flow rate does not change evenly with stem travel. Also, a partially open gate disk tends to vibrate from the fluid flow. Most of the flow change occurs near shutoff with a relatively high fluid velocity causing disk and seat wear and eventual leakage if used to regulate flow. Typical gate valves are designed to be fully opened or closed. When fully open, the typical gate valve has no obstruction in the flow path, resulting in very low friction loss.
Gate valves are characterised as having either a rising or a nonrising stem. Rising stems provide a visual indication of valve position because the stem is attached to the gate such that the gate and stem rise and lower together as the valve is operated. Nonrising stem valves may have a pointer threaded onto the upper end of the stem to indicate valve position, since the gate travels up or down the stem on the threads without raising or lowering the stem. Nonrising stems are used underground or where vertical space is limited.
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